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Risk for Infection related to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Nursing Diagnosis for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma : Risk for Infection

Objectives: After nursing intervention, there were no risk factors for infection in the client,

evidenced by adequate client imune status: free of symptoms of infection, normal leukocyte numbers (4-11000).

Nursing Interventions:

  Control of infection:
1. Clean up the environment after use for other patients.
2. Maintain isolation techniques.
3. Limit visitors when necessary.
4. Instruct family to wash their hands when contact and thereafter.
5. Use anti-microbial soap to wash hands.
6. Make hand washing before and after nursing actions.
7. Use clothes and gloves as a protective device.
8. Maintain aseptic environment during the installation of equipment.
9. Perform wound care and infusion dresing every day.
10. Increase the intake of nutrients.
11. Give antibiotics according to the program.

Protection against infection
1. Monitor signs and symptoms of systemic and local infections.
2. Monitor granulocytes and WBC count.
3. Monitor susceptibility to infection.
4. Maintain aseptic technique for each action.
5. Maintain isolation techniques if necessary.
6. Inspection of the skin and mucous mebran redness, heat, drainage.
7. Inspection of the condition of wounds, surgical incisions.
8. Take culture if necessary
9. Push the input of nutrients and adequate fluid.
10. Encourage adequate rest.
11. Monitor changes in energy levels.
12. Encourage increased mobility and exercise.
13. Instruct the client to take antibiotics according to the program.
14. Teach family / client about the signs and symptoms of infection.
15. Report suspicion of infection.
16. Report if positive cultures.

Hyperthermia - Hyperthyroidism

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthermia related to the status of hypermetabolic

characterized by heat.

After nursing actions, expected normal temperature 36.5 C - 37.5 C.

Nursing Intervention:
  • Give warm compresses as needed.
  • Use clothing and a thin bed of felt.
  • Maintain a cool environment.
  • Give febrifuge to order.
  • Increase fluid intake to 2500 ml / day.
  • Monitor vital signs, level of consciousness, urine output every 2 to 4 hours.
  • Collaborate with physicians in the use of additional cooling measures when the situation requires.
Expected results / evaluation:
  • Patient is conscious and responsive.
  • Vital signs and normal urine output.

Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
In case of heart failure, the body has several adaptations, both in the heart and systemically. If both ventricular stroke volume is reduced, therefore the emphasis contractility or afterload was increased, the volume and end-diastolic pressure in the two chambers of the heart increased. This will increase the length of myocardial fibers end-diastolic, systolic rise time becomes shorter. If this condition persists, ventricular dilatation occurs. Cardiac output at rest can still be good, but the increase in diastolic pressure that lasts longer / chronicle will spread to both the atrium and the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. Finally, capillary pressure will increase which will lead to transudation of fluid and edema arising systemic or pulmonary edema. Decrease in cardiac output, especially if associated with a reduction in arterial pressure or decreased renal perfusion, will activate several neural and humoral systems. Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system will stimulate myocardial contraction, heart rate and veins; recent changes that will increase central blood volume, which in turn increase the preload. Although these adaptations are designed to increase cardiac output, adaptation itself can interfere with the body. Therefore, tachycardia and increased myocardial contractility can stimulate the occurrence of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease earlier and increased preload may worsen pulmonary congestion.

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system will also increase peripheral resistance; adaptation designed to maintain perfusion to vital organs, but if activation is increased instead will decrease the flow to the kidneys and tissues. Peripheral vascular resistance may also be a major determinant of ventricular afterload, so that excessive sympathetic activity can improve the function of the heart itself. One important effect is a decrease in cardiac output decreased renal blood flow and filtration rate decreased glomerolus, which will cause sodium and fluid retention. Sitem renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system will also be activated, leading to increased peripheral vascular resistance and penigkatan selanjutnta left ventricular afterload as sodium and fluid retention. Heart failure is associated with increased levels of arginine vasopressin in the circulation increases, which also is vasokontriktor and inhibiting the excretion of fluids. In heart failure increased atrial natriuretic peptide due to increased atrial pressure, which indicates that here there is resistance to the effects of natriuretic and vasodilator.

Impaired Skin Integrity related to Diabetes Mellitus

Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus: Impaired Skin Integrity

Goal: After nursing Interventions, improved wound healing:

Expected outcomes:
  • Luka shrink in size and increase in granulation tissue.

Nursing Interventions:

Wound care
  1. Note the characteristics of the wound: determine the size and depth of the wound, and the classification of the influence ulcers
  2. Note the characteristics of the fluid that comes out secret
  3. Clean with a liquid anti-bacterial
  4. Rinse with 0.9% NaCl fluid
  5. Perform nekrotomi, if necessary
  6. Perform the appropriate tampon
  7. With sterile gauze dressing as needed
  8. Make dressing
  9. Maintain a sterile dressing technique when performing wound care
  10. Observe any changes in the packing
  11. Compare and note any changes in the wound
  12. Give position to avoid pressure
Assessment of injuries, will be more realible done by the same caregiver in the same position and the same techniques.

17 Benefits of Bananas

Benefits of Bananas for your health

Banana, Fruit of the easiest to find. Even plants can grow wild your yard. Bananas proved to have very many benefits. What are the benefits of this fruit of the people's health? Lets check it:

1. Anemia
Bananas are rich in iron that can increase the production of hemoglobin in the blood.

2. Blood pressure
Rich in potassium and low salt content. Even the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends the banana producer added that bananas can reduce the risk of blood pressure and stroke.

3. Constipation
Rich in fiber, include bananas in the diet can restore normal bowel action.

4. Depression
According to a survey of MIND, people with depression feel better after eating a banana. This is because of the content of tryptophan which is a protein that the body converts into serotonin can-can create a relaxing, improve your mood and generally make you happier.

5. Tipsy
How to eliminate it is to make a banana milkshake mixed with honey. Relieve stomach banana, honey reinstate sugar and milk were able to re-hydrate your system.

6. Heartburn
Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body so as to relieve the pain.

7. Feeling sick in the morning
This feeling often experienced by pregnant women, women on HRT and who use hormonal contraception. Ease that Cemil is bananas in the morning between meals.

8. Mosquito bites
Use the inside of the banana skin, and rub the mosquito bite. It can reduce swelling and irritation.

9. Restless
Bananas are rich in B vitamins that can calm the nerves.

10. Regulation of body weight
Bananas have a role in weight loss as well as increase weight. For dieting, eating four bananas and four glasses of non-fat milk or liquid milk per day at least three days a week. In addition to weight, diet can make your skin clean and not oily. To fatten, consumption of one glass of banana milkshake mixed with honey, fruits, nuts and mangoes after dinner.

11. PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
Vitamin B6 it contains regulates blood glucose levels, which can affect your mood.

12. Smoke
Can help smokers to quit is because bananas have a high content of Vitamin C, A1, B6, B12, potassium and magnesium. The content can help the body to return to normal from the effects of nicotine.

13. Temperature control: many cultures in the world using a banana as a coolant temperature of expectant mothers physically and emotionally. In Thailand, pregnant women eat bananas so that the baby is born with a cool temperature.

14.Luka stomach
Bananas can neutralize over-acidity and reduces irritation by coating the lining of the stomach.

15. Wart
Traditional medicine is believed to be able to remove warts. Take a little banana peel with the position of the yellow on the outside and stick it on the wart and then paste with plaster.

16. Beauty facial
Make banana porridge mixed with a little honey and milk and apply on the face every day for 30-40 minutes on a regular basis. Rinse with warm water and then rinse with cold water or ice, repeated for 15 days. It will produce a stunning effect on the skin.

17. Patients Lever
Consumption of two bananas plus one tablespoon of honey, will increase appetite and makes it stronger.

Nutrition for Beauty

Nutrition for Beauty


water Nutrition for Beauty
The water is very beneficial to every living creature because of the many benefits that can be through the consumption of water in sufficient quantities. There are some health benefits include:

digestive system launched
prevent dangerous diseases such as kidney stones or liver
as balancing the body, etc.

whereas for beauty, body water can nourish and moisturize the skin, and is believed to be a potent drug ageless ^ _ ^. Therefore, consume water in sufficient quantities or 8 to 10 glasses per day.


Breakfast can make the body more healthy and ready to perform all daily activities. The ideal breakfast is the menu that contains at least 4 grams of fiber, because the amount is considered suitable and fit to reduce the risk of cholesterol and fat levels in the blood. At 10 grams of fiber may reduce the number of heart disease and diabetes risk by 30%. Fiber can also reduce the risk of cancer. Breakfast consumption course with 4 healthy 5 perfect menu could increase the level of immunity or resistance to disease. It would be better to apply the consumption of breakfast more than lunch and dinner. Regulate eating during the day with ample servings and fewer servings evening, in order to avoid excess fat deposits.


There are 2 different types of green vegetables at lunch will help us look beautiful and healthy. Green vegetables contain nutrients that the body needs with the content of carotene (provitamin A), which serves to slow down the aging process with a lot of wrinkles symptoms found in women aged over 40 years. Besides the benefits of vegetables is to prevent cancer, improve lung function and reduce komlikasi associated with diabetes.

Eliminate Body Odor

Here is Tips to Eliminate Body Odor :

Bath Two Times A Day And More

Bath Two Times A Day And More
The function of a shower is to eliminate excessive sweating, removes dirt and bacteria, keeps the body clean and fresh. Do not forget to clean and scrub the areas of skin folds, back, between the legs, which is a bacteria breeding center.

Use antiseptic soap

Besides being able to eliminate germs and bacteria, soap can also prevent itching of the body due to prickly heat.

Use Deodorant

Use Deodorant
Function deodorant to eliminate body odor anti perspirant to minimize the production of excessive sweat. Do not use powder, because it can cause the skin to become black armpit / mole.

Note the intake of food
Note the intake of food
Avoid pungent foods that cause body odor like garlic, onions, spicy and oily foods. Basil leaves for eliminating body odor. Can be consumed directly as fresh vegetables or processed for spiced mixture. Betel leaf boiled water is also good to get rid of body odor.