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Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Nursing Diagnosis for Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
  1. Decreased Cardiac Output related to malformations of the heart.
  2. Impaired Gas Exchange related to pulmonary congestion.
  3. Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen consumption by the body and oxygen supply to the cells.
  4. Delayed Growth and Development related to an inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.
  5. Imbalanced Nutrition Less than Body related to fatigue at mealtime and increased caloric needs.
  6. Risk for Infection related to decreased health status.

Nursing Interventions for Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
1. Maintain adequate cardiac output:
  • Observation of the quality and strength of heart rate, peripheral pulses, skin color and warmth.
  • Enforce the degree of cyanosis (circumoral, mucous membranes, clubbing).
  • Monitor signs of CHF (restlessness, tachycardia, tachypnea, spasms, fatigue, periorbital edema, oliguria, and hepatomegaly).
  • Collaboration of drugs in accordance with the order, using toxicity hazard prevention techniques.
  • Provide treatment to reduce afterload.
  • Give diuretics as indicated.
2. Reduce the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance:
  • Monitor the quality and rhythm of breathing.
  • Adjust the position of the child with Fowler position.
  • Avoid children from an infected person.
  • Give adequate rest.
  • Provide optimal nutrition.
  • Give oxygen if indicated.
3. Maintaining adequate levels of activity:
  • Allow the child to rest frequently, and avoid disturbances during sleep.
  • Encourage to engage in play and light activity.
  • Help child to choose activities appropriate to the age, condition and abilities.
  • Avoid the ambient temperature is too hot or too cold.
  • Avoid the things that cause fear / anxiety in children.
4. Provide support for the Growth and Development :
  • Assess the level of development of the child.
  • Give the stimulation of growth and development, play activities, gaming, watching TV, puzzles, drawing, and others according to the condition and age of the child.
  • Involve the family in order to continue to provide stimulation during care.
5. Maintaining growth in weight and height appropriate:
  • Provide a balanced diet, high nutrients for adequate growth.
  • Monitor height and weight, documented in the form of graphs to determine the trend of growing children.
  • Measure weight every day with the same weight and the same time.
  • Record intake and output correctly.
  • Provide food with small portions but often to avoid fatigue during meals.
  • Children who receive diuretics are usually very thirsty, and therefore not restricted fluid.
6. Children will not show signs of infection:
  • Avoid contact with infected individuals.
  • Give adequate rest.
  • Provide optimal nutritional needs.

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