Most colon cancers originate from small, noncancerous (benign) tumors called adenomatous polyps that form on the inner walls of the large intestine. Some of these polyps may grow into malignant colon cancers over time if they are not removed during colonoscopy. Colon cancer cells will invade and damage healthy tissue that is near the tumor causing many complications.
Colon cancer is not necessarily the same as rectal cancer, but they often occur together in what is called colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer originates in the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine, closest to the anus.
Cancer symptoms are quite varied and depend on where the cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. It is common for people with colon cancer to experience no symptoms in the earliest stages of the disease. However, when the cancer grows, symptoms include:
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Changes in stool consistency
- Narrow stools
- Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
- Pain, cramps, or gas in the abdomen
- Pain during bowel movements
- Continual urges to defecate
- Weakness or fatigue
- Unexplained weight loss
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Iron deficiency (anemia)
1. Constipation related to obstructive lesions.
2. Acute Pain related to tissue compression secondary to obstruction.
3. Fatigue related to anemia and anorexia.
4. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements related to nausea and anorexia.
5. Risk for fluid volume deficit related to vomiting and dehydration
6. Anxiety related to cancer diagnosis and surgery planning
7. Knowledge Deficit: the diagnosis, surgical procedures, and self-care.
8. Impaired Skin Integrity related to surgical incision (abdominoperineal), stoma formation, and faecal contamination of the skin periostomal.
9. Disturbed body image related to colostomy.