Definition of Personal Hygiene
- Personal hygiene is derived from the Greek language which means individual personal hygiene and healthy means. Personal hygiene is an action to maintain the cleanliness and health of a person's physical well-being.
- Personal hygiene is an individual effort in maintaining personal hygiene which includes cleanliness of hair, teeth and mouth, eyes, ears, nails, skin, and dressed in improving hygiene in optimal health (Effendi, 1997).
- Personal Hygiene is an act of maintaining the cleanliness and health of a person's physical and psychological well-being. The size of a person's cleanliness or appearance in fulfilling the needs of Personal Hygiene Personal differences in pain due to an interruption fulfillment.
Purposes of Personal Hygiene
- Improve the health of a person.
- Illness and disability can affect immabolisasi.
- Maintaining the cleanliness of a person.
- Fixing personl hygiene is lacking.
- Prevent disease.
- Improving one's self-confidence.
- Creating beauty (tarwoto, 2004).
Factors affecting the Personal Hygiene
- Body image. Image individuals against themselves strongly influence personal hygiene, for example due to a physical change that is never an individual concerned about hygiene
- Social practices. In the children are always spoiled in personal hygiene, may lead to a change in personal hygiene.
- Socioeconomic status. Changes in hygiene requires tools and materials such as soap, toothpaste, shampoo, bath equipment, all of which require a fee to provide it.
- Knowledge. Knowledge of personal hygiene is very important because of his extensive knowledge to improve health.
- Culture. Most of the people if a certain sick individuals, it must not be bathed.
- The habit of a person. There is a custom of someone who uses pruduk tertuntu in self-care such as the use of soap, etc. sampoh.
- Physical state. In particular illness, diminished ability to care for themselves and perlumembantu to do so.
Various of Personal Hygiene
Maintenance of personal hygiene means maintaining cleanliness and hygiene measures a person's physical and psychological well-being. A person is said to have good personal hygiene when, the person can have good personal hygiene which includes cleanliness of the skin, teeth and mouth, hair, eyes, nose, and ears, feet and nails, genitalia, as well as the cleanliness and tidiness pakaiannya.Menurut Potter and Perry (2005 ) assorted personal hygiene and the aim is:
1 Skin Care
The skin is an active organ that serves as a protector of various germs or trauma, secretion, excretion, temperature regulator, and sensation, so that adequate care is needed in maintaining its function. The skin has three main layers of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous. When patients are not able or do personal skin care the nurses provide help or teach families how to carry out personal hygiene. A patient who is unable to move freely due to illness will be at risk of skin damage. Body parts hanging and exposed to pressure from the bottom surface of the body (eg matrasi body casts or wrinkled linen lining), will reduce circulation to the affected part of the body that can lead to pressure sores. Moisture on the surface of the skin is a bacterial growth medium and cause local irritation, smoothes the epidermis cells, and can cause skin maceration. Sweat, urine, watery fecal material and wound drainage may accumulate on the surface of the skin and will cause skin damage and infection. Patients who use some kind of external devices such as a cast skin, clothes fastener, bandages, dressings, and orthopedic jacket can exert pressure or friction on the skin surface so as causing skin damage. The purpose of skin care is the patient will have the skin intact, free of body odor, the patient can maintain range of motion, feel comfortable and prosperous, and can berpartisifasi and understand methods of skin care.
Bathing the patient is a total hygienic care. Bath, can be categorized as a cleansing or therapeutic. Bath, in bed complete necessary for patients with total dependence and requires total personal hygiene. Breadth bathing patients and methods used for bathing is based on the patient's physical abilities and needs of the required level of hygiene. Patients who rely in meeting personal hygiene needs, lying in bed and not being able to reach all members of the body can obtain most of the bath in bed. The purpose of bathing patients in bed is to maintain the cleanliness of the body, reduce infections caused by dirty skin, improving blood circulation system, and increase patient comfort. Bath can eliminate microorganisms from the skin and body secretions, eliminates bad odor, improve blood circulation to the skin, and make the patient feel more relaxed and refreshed. Patients can be bathed every day in the hospital. However, if the patient's skin dry, the bath may be limited once or twice a week so it will not add to the skin to become dry. Nurses or family members may need to help the patient to walk to the bathroom or the back of the bathroom. Nurse or family member must be there to help the patient flushed or dry out if necessary clean or replace clothes after bathing. Sometimes patients can bathe themselves in bed or they need the assistance of a nurse or family member to bathe the back or legs. Sometimes patients can not bathe themselves and the nurse or family member to bathe the patient in bed.
3. Oral hygiene
Patient immobilization is too weak to perform oral care, as a result, the mouth becomes too dry or irritated and cause unpleasant odors. These problems can be increased due to disease or medication used by the patient. Oral care should be done every day and depend on the state of the patient's mouth. Teeth and mouth is an important part of cleanliness must be maintained through this organ for a variety of germs can enter. Oral hygiene helps maintain the health status of the mouth, teeth, gums, and lips, scrub clean the teeth of food particles, plaque, bacteria, memasase gums, and reduce discomfort resulting from the smell and taste that is uncomfortable. Some diseases that may arise as a result of dental care and poor oral is caries, gingivitis (gum inflammation), and thrush. Good oral hygiene provide a sense of sound and further stimulate appetite. The purpose of oral hygiene care patient is a patient will have an intact oral mucosa are well hydrated and to prevent the spread of diseases that are transmitted through the mouth (eg typhoid, hepatitis), diseases of the mouth and teeth prevent, increase endurance, achieve a sense of comfort, understanding oral hygiene practices and able to perform their own oral hygiene care properly.
4. Eye, nose, and ears care
Special attention is given to cleaning the eyes, nose, and ears during bathing patients. Normally there is no special care needed for the eye because it is continuously cleaned by water eyes, eyelids and eyelashes to prevent the entry of foreign particles into the eye. Normally, the ears do not actually need cleaning. However, patients with too much wax, ears need to be cleaned either independently or performed by nurses and family. Ear hygiene has implications for auditory acuity. If the foreign body assembled on the outer ear canal, it will interfere with the conduction of sound. The nose serves as the sense of smell, monitor the temperature and humidity of inhaled air, and prevent the entry of foreign particles into the respiratory system. Patients who have limited mobilization need help nurses or family members for treatment of eyes, nose, and ears. Treatment goals eyes, nose, and ears are the patient will have a normal functioning of sensory organs, eyes, nose, and ears of the patient will be free from infection, and the patient will be able to make eye care, nose, and ears everyday.
5. Hair Care
Appearance and well-being often depends on the way the look and feel of the hair. Illness or disability prevents a person to maintain day-to-day hair care. Brush, comb and shampoo are basic hygienic ways of hair care, hair distribution pattern can be an indicator of general health status, hormonal changes, emotional and physical stress, aging, infections and certain diseases or drugs can affect the characteristics of the hair. Hair is part of the body which have a function as protection and temperature control, through hair changes in health status itself can be identified. Illness or disability makes the patient can not maintain the daily hair care. Patient immobilization hair tends to look wrinkled. Brushing, combing, and shampoo the hair higyene basis for all patients. Patients should also be allowed to shave when conditions permit. Patients who are able to perform self-care should be motivated to maintain their daily hair care. Whereas in patients who have limited mobilization need help nurse or the patient's family in doing higyene hair. The purpose of hair care is the patient will have the hair and scalp clean and healthy, the patient will achieve a sense of comfort and self-esteem, and the patient can berpartisifasi in hair care practices.
6. Foot and nail care
Feet and nails often need special attention to prevent infection, odor, and injury to the tissue. But often people are not aware of foot problems and nail until there is pain or discomfort. Maintain cleanliness of nails is important in maintaining personal hygiene due to a variety of germs can enter the body through the nail. Therefore, the nail should remain healthy and clean. Treatments can be combined for a shower or at separate times. The purpose of the foot and nail care is the patient will have the intact skin and soft surface of the skin, the patient feels comfortable and clean, the patient will understand and perform foot and nail care methods correctly.
7 Genital care
Genitalia care is part of a complete bath. Patients who need care the most rigorous genitalia is the biggest risk patients acquired the infection. Patients who are able to perform self-care can be allowed to do their own. Nurses may be embarrassed to provide care genitalia, especially in patients of the opposite sex. Can be helpful to have a nurse of the same sex with the patient in the room at the time of treatment genitalia. The goal of treatment is to prevent the occurrence of genital infections, genital hygiene maintaining, improving comfort and maintaining personal hygiene.