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Nursing Assessment for Hallucinations (Predisposing and Precipitating Factors)

At this stage the nurse explore the factors that exist below, namely:

1. Predisposing Factors

Are risk factors that affect the type and amount of resources that can be generated by individuals to cope with stress. Obtained either from the patient or his family, the cultural factors of social development, biochemical, psychological and genetic risk factors that affect the type and amount of resources that can be generated by individuals to cope with stress.
  • Development factors: If the developmental tasks encountered resistance, and impaired interpersonal relationships then the individual will experience stress and anxiety.
  • Sociocultural factors: A variety of factors can lead to a society ruled by a lonely feeling to the environment in which the client was raised.
  • Biochemical factors: Having an influence on the occurrence of mental disorders. With the excessive stress experienced by a person inside the body will then produce a hallucinogenic substance that can be Neurochemistry.
  • Psychological factors: Interpersonal relationships are not harmonious and the dual role conflicting and often accepted by the child will lead to high stress and anxiety disorders and ended with reality orientation.
  • Genetic factors: what influence gene in schizophrenia is unknown, but research suggests that family factors showed a highly influential on the disease.

2. Precipitating Factors

Namely; stimulus perceived by the individual as a challenge, a threat / demands that require extra energy for coping. The presence of environmental stimuli that often are as participation of clients in a group, far too long encouraged communication, objects that exist in the environment is also a quiet atmosphere / isolation is often a trigger hallucinations because it can increase the stress and anxiety that stimulates the body to secrete hallucinogenic substances.

3. Behavior

Client's response to the hallucinations may be suspicious, frightened, feeling insecure, anxious and confused, self-destructive behavior, lack of attention, not able to take decisions and can not distinguish the real and unreal situation. According to Rawlins and Heacock, 1993 tried to solve the problem of hallucinations based upon the nature of the existence of an individual as a creature that is built on the basis of the elements of the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual that hallucinations can be seen from the dimensions:
  • Physical dimensions : Man built by the sensory system to respond to external stimuli provided by the environment. Hallucinations can be caused by several physical conditions like fatigue tremendous, drug use, fever up to delirium, alcohol intoxication and difficulty to sleep in a long time.
  • Emotional dimensions : Feelings of anxiety are excessive on the basis of problems that can not be the cause of the hallucinations occur. The contents of hallucinations can be a force command and scary. Clients no longer able to oppose the order with the condition to the client to do something about these fears.
  • Intellectual dimension: In this intellectual dimension explains that individuals with hallucinations would show a decrease in the function of the ego. At first it is a hallucination of his own ego to resist the impulse to press, but it is something that raises awareness that can take all the attention of the client and often will control all client behavior.
  • Social Dimension : The social dimension in individuals with hallucinations showed a tendency to be alone. Individuals preoccupied with hallucinations, as if it is a place to meet the need for social interaction, self-control and self-esteem were not found in the real world. Fill hallucinations control system used by the individual, so if the command hallucinations in the form of a threat, the individual himself or others tend to it. Therefore, an important aspect in implementing nursing interventions to pursue a process of interpersonal interactions that lead to a satisfying experience, and not aloof mengusakan client so that the client always interacts with its environment and hallucinations did not last.
  • Spiritual Dimension: Humans as social beings, so that interaction with other human beings is a fundamental requirement. In these individuals tend to be aloof until the above process does not occur, the individual is not aware of the existence and hallucination into the control system of the individual. Hallucinations when an individual loses control over him his life.

4. Sources Coping

An evaluation of the person's choice of coping strategies. Individuals can cope with stress and anxiety by using coping resources in the environment. Coping as a capital source to solve the problem, social support and cultural beliefs, can help a person integrate stressful experience and adopt coping strategies that work.

5. Coping Mechanisms

Every effort is directed at the implementation of stress, including efforts to resolve the problem directly and defense mechanisms are used to protect themselves.