Tongue cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue with the tongue-shaped mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (stratified squamous epithelial cells) and occur as a result of chronic stimulation, as well as some specific diseases (premalignant). This cancer can infiltrate into the surrounding area, in addition to doing it limfogen and hematogenous metastases.
Some of the causes of malignant cancer of the tongue has been suspected, but by the experts has been no statement can be made explicitly. However, there is some suspicion that the malignant cancer of the tongue occurs because there is a relationship with some specific disorders or certain diseases. Several studies have found that the disease syphilis, both in the case of active or at least had no previous history of syphilis, often found together with a malignant cancer of the tongue. Martin reported that 33% of patients suffering from malignant cancer of the tongue also had syphilis disease. There are several other diseases that cause malignant cancer of the tongue include poor oral hygiene, chronic trauma and disorders of alcohol and tobacco. A number of cases have been observed where the malignant cancer of the tongue arising in place in accordance with the source of chronic irritation such as dental caries or tooth decay with a lot of calculus, and is also usually due to the installation of dentures or prostheses that position is not suitable.
Signs of cancer that often appears on the tongue is a mass or ulcer, although in most patients the lesions eventually become painful, of course, this happens if there is secondary infection. The tumors can be started as superficial ulcers who have induration with a slightly protruding edge and may progress to infiltrate the inside of the tip of the tongue which may cause fixation or induration that looks much changed its surface.
Typical lesions arise on the edge of the lateral or ventral surface of the tongue. While the small number of cancer cases arise on the surface of the tongue dorsum of the tongue, usually in patients with a history of previous syphilitic glossitis or who are experiencing syphilitic glossitis. In 1554 reported cases of carcinoma of the tongue by frazel and lucas only 4% occurred on the dorsum of the tongue. Lesions on the lateral edge of the uneven distribution between the base of the tongue and the third from the middle of the tongue. Lesions near the base of the tongue, especially not clear because these lesions do not cause symptoms until it is a little further even manifestations that appear only in the form of sore throat and dysphagia. Special places the emergence of these tumors is very important because of lesions in the posterior part of the tongue usually have a high degree of malignancy, early metastasis and the prognosis is very poor, mainly because of the difficulty in treating it.
Nursing Diagnosis for Tongue Cancer
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to inability to ingest adequate nutrition due to oral conditions.
Goal: Nutrition met.
- Age-appropriate weight.
- Increased appetite.
- No nausea / vomiting.
1. Measure body weight every day.
R /: To determine the occurrence of weight loss and determine the level of change.
2. Eating foods that do not stimulate (soft / pureed).
R /: To help repair intestinal absorption.
3. Encourage clients to eat in the warm.
R /: warm Circumstances can increase appetite.
4. Encourage clients to eat little but often.
R /: To meet the food intake.
5. Provide diet high in calories, protein and minerals and low in residual substances.
R /: To meet the adequate nutrition.
6. Collaboration antipyretic drug administration.
R /: To reduce and even eliminate nausea and vomiting.