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Peritonitis Definition and Clinical Manifestations

Peritonitis Definition

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum - the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera is dangerous complications that can occur in acute or chronic form or set of signs and symptoms, including tenderness and pain on palpation loose, defans muscular, and general signs of inflammation. Patients with peritonitis may experience symptoms of acute, mild illness and limited, or severe and systemic disease with septic shock.

Infectious peritonitis, are divided over the causes perimer (spontaneous peritonitis), secondary (associated with pathological processes in visceral organs), or tertiary cause (recurrent or persistent infection after adequate initial therapy). Infection of the abdomen are grouped into pertitonitis infection (common) and abdominal abscesses (local peritonitis infection is relatively difficult to enforce and very dependent of the underlying disease. The cause of peritonitis is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to chronic liver disease.

Other causes of secondary peritonitis is perforated appendicitis, peptic and duodenal ulcer perforation, perforation of the colon due to diverdikulitis, volvulus and cancer, and ascending colon strangulation. The cause of iatrogenic trauma generally comes from the upper gastrointestinal tract including pancreas, bile ducts and colon sometimes also can occur from trauma endoscopy. Stitching operation that is leaking is a common cause of peritonitis.

After surgery, abdominal effective for non-infectious etiology, incidence of secondary peritonitis (due to rupture of suture surgery should be less than 2%. Surgery for inflammatory diseases (eg appendicitis, divetikulitis, cholecystitis) without risk of perforation is less than 10% of secondary peritonitis and peritoneal abscess. Risk occurrence of secondary peritonitis and abscess higher with the involvement of the duodenum, pancreatic colonic perforation, peritoneal contamination, perioperative shock, and the passive transfusion.

Peritonitis Clinical Manifestations

The presence of blood or fluid in the peritoneum cavity will provide signs of stimulation peritoneum. Peritoneum stimuli cause tenderness and muscular defans, liver dullness may disappear due to free air under the diaphragm. Decreased peristaltic lost due to temporary paralysis of the intestines.

In case of bacterial peritonitis, the patient's body temperature will rise and there is tachycardia, hypotension and the patient seemed lethargic and shock. This stimulation causes pain on any movement that causes the shift of peritoneum. Pain is a subjective form of pain when the patient moves such as roads, breathing, coughing, or straining. Pain is a pain if the objective is moved such as palpation, tenderness loose, psoas test, or other tests.

Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis enforced by the presence of abdominal pain (Acute abdomen) with a dull pain and obscure location (visceral peritoneum) that more and more obvious location (parietal peritoneum). Relative signs of peritonitis with severe infection is high fever or sepsis patients who could be hypothermia, tachycardia, dehydration to be hypotensive. Severe abdominal pain which usually has a punctum maximum specific place as a source of infection.

The walls of the stomach will feel tight because the mechanism of anticipation patient unconsciously to avoid palpation painful or tense because of irritation of the peritoneum.