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Nursing Care Plan for Anemia - Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions

Anemia is a clinical condition in which total number of red blood cells or the quantity of hemoglobin in blood declines than the normal level so the oxygen binding ability of hemoglobin is decreased.
Anemia is a relatively common disorder where one’s body does not produce enough red blood corpuscles (or cells) in the blood. As a result, the reduced number of cells does not have enough of the protein hemoglobin, which contains iron and transports oxygen around one’s bloodstream, thus the patient feels weak and looks pale – the most noticeable symptoms of anemia.
Types of Anemia
  • Iron deficiency anemia;
  • Folate deficiency anemia;
  • Sickle Cell Disease; and
  • Thalassemia.
Anemia in some individuals may remain hidden as the symptoms do not arise very frequently. The signs and symptoms may depend upon the underlying cause. Individuals suffering from anemia generally show non-specific symptoms like weakness, general malaise and poor concentration. They may also report shortness of breath on exertion. In very severe forms the body compensates for the lack of oxygen carrying capacity of blood cells by increasing the cardiac output. The patient may also complain of palpitation, angina, and intermittent claudication of legs and signs of heart failure. Other prominent symptoms include jaundice, bone deformities or leg ulcers. In severe forms tachycardia, bounding pulse, flow murmurs and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy may also occur. Symptoms of heart failure may also arise. Pica, a symptom of iron deficiency arises after the consumption of non-food items like paper, wax, glass and ice. Chronic anemia may also cause behavioral changes in the children resulting in impaired neurological development. Restless legs syndrome is very common in individuals with iron deficiency anemia. Less frequent symptoms include swelling of legs, arms, chronic heartburn, vomiting, increased sweating and loss of blood in stool.

Nursing Diagnosis for Anemia – Nursing Interventions for Anemia
1. Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective Tissue Perfusion
Goal: Adequate tissue perfusion
Nursing Interventions for Anemia:
  • Monitoring of vital signs, capillary refill, color of skin, mucous membranes.
  • Raising the head position in bed
  • Check and document the presence of pain.
  • Observation of a delay in verbal response, confusion, or restlessness
  • Observing and documenting the existence of the cold.
  • Maintain the ambient temperature to keep warm the body needs.
  • Provide oxygen as needed.
2. Nursing Diagnosis: Activity Intolerance
Goal: Support the child remain tolerant of the activity
Nursing Interventions for Anemia:
  • Assess children’s ability to perform activities in accordance with physical and developmental tasks of children.
  • Monitoring vital signs during and after activity, and noted a physiological response to activity (increased heart rate increased blood pressure, or rapid breathing).
  • Provide information to the patient or family to stop doing activities if teladi symptoms of increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, rapid breathing, dizziness or fatigue).
  • Provide support to children to perform daily activities in accordance with the child’s ability.
  • Teach parents techniques provide reinforcement to the participation of children at home.
  • Create a schedule of activities with the children and families by involving other health care team.
  • Describe and provide recommendations to the school about the child’s ability to perform the activity, the ability to monitor activity on a regular basis and explain to parents and schools.
3. Nursing Diagnosis: Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements
Goal: Meet the needs of adequate nutrition
Nursing Interventions for Anemia:
  • Allow the child to eat foods that can be tolerated child, plan to improve the nutritional quality at the child’s appetite increases.
  • Provide food that is accompanied by a nutritional supplement to improve the quality of nutritional intake.
  • Allow the child to engage in food preparation and selection
  • Evaluate the child’s weight every day.
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